Istanbul is located in Turkey, and is one of the city of the country’s 81 provinces. It is the most populous city of the country, and is the most important city for economic and socio-cultural perspective. The cities economic size in the world in terms is 34. According to the ranking by considering the boundaries of the municipality in terms of population, first in Europe, after Lagos is in sixth place in the world.
Istanbul is in the northwest of Turkey, around the Sea of Marmara, the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus was established in manner.
Istanbul is a transcontinental city, the European part is called the Rumeli side or European side, the Asia part is called the Anatolian side or the Asian side. Firstly in history it had three sides when it was founded. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn on a peninsula flanked, the border was composed in the west of Istanbul city walls. In the process of development and growth of the walls being constructed by carrying forward enlarged 4 times with each time more to the west of the city, there are 39 districts. Within limits, the Metropolitan municipality, together with a total of 40 municipalities.
One of the world’s oldest cities, Istanbul, AD 330-395 years between the Roman Empire, 395-1204 with 1261-1453 between the years of the Byzantine Empire, The Latin Empire between 1204 and 1261, and finally made it the capital of the Ottoman Empire between the years 1453-1922. Also Istanbul, the Caliphate passed to the Ottoman Empire from 1924 until 1517, became the center of Sunni Islam.
In recent years, one after another, with archaeological findings uncovered important information about the history of humanity was obtained.
Yarımburgaz Cave, tools carried out from the cave like the stone tools, primitive of human beings has emerged that is based on 400,000 years ago. Excavations and research conducted on the Asian side, the first permanent human community based on agriculture and animal husbandry is Fikirtepe culture dated to 5500 BC. These archaeological findings are not only in Istanbul, but also are in all the oldest human traces in the Marmara Region. On the basis of the first settlements within the city limits of Istanbul; Chalcedon on the Asian Side; Byzantion on the European Side. Istanbul has been the capital in the Republican period under the rule to the states that are thousands of years prior. With the capital moved to Ankara in 1923 October 13, it has lost this feature. However, the country’s trade, industry, transport, tourism, education, culture and art center continues to function.
Connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara, and the Bosphorus that separates Asia and Europe due to host, the geopolitical significance of Istanbul is quite high. Today, it has lost nearly all filled or one of the natural harbors. Because of these properties, on the territory of the region’s long-term sovereignty has experienced disputes and wars. The main rivers are Riva, Kağıthane and Alibey River. The land the city is less bumpy and highest point in the city is Kartal district land less bumpy. Major natural lakes in the province, Büyükçekmece, Küçükçekmece and Durusu lakes.
In the near vicinity, is the Black Sea with the Mediterranean climates is seen in the transition between the macro properties. Air temperatures and irregular rainfall averages; vegetation is unstable.